Research Impact: The literature shows that for optimal transfer, specificity, low volume, high velocity/force resistance training programmes are optimal. Stroke length is best achieved through resistance training with low repetitions at a high velocity/force. Resisted swims are the most appropriate training modality for improving stroke rate. Landmark registration is a reliable and valid method to avoid stroke length and rate inconsistencies with the identification of suitable strength tests requiring further investigation. The implications of concurrent training require further consideration. Future research is needed, with long term resistance training interventions which will be highly informative for the scientific community, coaches and athletes alike.