Encouraging Students to Co-Construct and Co- and Self-Regulate Their Learning Within a Cooperative Learning Environment in Physical Education – andré moura, ann mac phail, amandio graca, paula batista.

Nowadays, there is the belief that learning is not a linear process where everything taught is learned, and where assessment, when used meaningfully, can improve students’ learning.

This line of thought supports the belief that learning is more meaningful and powerful when students are involved in the teaching–learning process individually and as a collective (Barrientos-Hernán et al., 2019; Leirhaug & Annerstedt, 2016). In co-constructed and co- and self-regulated processes, students’ learning drives the process. Learning content is not the most important outcome but rather students’ ability to construct and regulate their process, i.e., understand where they are in their learning, where they are going (learning goals), and what they have to do to get there. Learning goals and assessment criteria need to be explicit to students as well as adapting the teaching and assessment to students’ learning and needs (Graça et al., 2019; Hay & Penney, 2013; Leirhaug & Annerstedt, 2016). Without this, teachers may struggle to involve students (individually and with peers) in these processes. The current study explores students’ learning experiences when undertaking the role of co-constructors and co- and self-regulators in a cooperative learning environment. The study included 110 school students aged between 15 and 18 years from four physical education preservice teachers’ classes. Data were collected through student focus group interviews, a postteaching units’ survey, students’ class reflections, and the researcher’s field notes. Findings showed i) that students considered essential knowing learning goals and assessment criteria to be part of the co-construction, co- and self-regulation processes; ii) that being involved in the co- and self-regulations helped students co-constructing their learning process; and iii) acting as co-constructors and co- and self-regulators of their learning benefited students’ involvement in a cooperative learning environment. Any of these processes are challenging for students but seems worth learning. Students need time and support to learn how to engage in these processes and cooperate with peers to achieve more meaningful learning for all. More studies on co-construction, co- and self-regulation processes and cooperative learning, capturing different contexts and age groups, as well as experienced teachers rather than PSTs, are necessary to fully explore the relationship between the learning processes for, and between, students and teachers.


Dr. André Moura is a Teaching Assistant in the Physical Education and Sport Sciences Department, University of Limerick.

Contact: ResearchGate  Andre.Moura@ul.ie @andre_moura_16

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