Research Impact Summary: Evidence supports positive effects of acute exercise on mood states. Non-traditional exercise modalities, including Pilates, remain understudied, particularly among males. This study examined mood state responses to a single Pilates bout among 87 young adult males, and explored if responses differed according to analogue Generalized Anxiety Disorder (AGAD) or depression status, or physical activity level. Acute Pilates showed reductions in state anxiety, feelings of fatigue, and TMD, and increased feelings of energy among participants with AGAD and depressed participants. These findings are the first to support potential positive mood state responses to an acute bout of Pilates among young adult males.